Raffaele Mattioli (1895-1973), managing director of the Banca Commerciale Italiana from 1933 to 1960 and then its president from 1960 to 1972, was one of the most representative bankers of the last century, well noted abroad in the world of big banking and international finance. A fine economist, he was a convinced promoter of industrial development. Well versed in the humanities and even active in publishing, he was the promoter and organizer of numerous cultural activities, especially in the fields of economic history, literature, philosophy and, to a lesser extent, architecture and art. The Mattioli papers are organised alphabetically by file of personal correspondence. There are almost 3,000 addresses and among them there are names of bankers, entrepreneurs, financial authorities, people from within Comit, scholars, friends and family. The inventory – through analytical descriptions of the documents and cross-references – gathers together the echoes of the official events and the problems of bank management in the period between the two wars, in Italy and abroad. From the major international financial centres to Milan flowed abundant information that few Italian or European banks possessed. More generally the Mattioli papers [link to the series] give back to the curious reader genuine evidence of the institutions and on their economic professionalism, on the political and civil climate, and can worthily sit alongside celebrated letters and ‘papers of personalities’ like Luigi Einaudi and Alberto Beneduce. The inventory reveals the references to ideal elaborations and political initiatives on the antifascist front (most evident in the letter-books and in the files produced in Rome between 1943-45) and the concrete actions of solidarity towards discriminated, imprisoned and missing Jews. Finally the promotion of ‘high culture’ is also documented, that Mattioli developed after World War II both with the Ricciardi publishing house, and with the creation of research centres of excellence, such as the Italian Institute of Historical Studies in Naples.